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Gray Level and DMA Estimation in Monocomponent Development Systems

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In our companion paper, we introduced a novel field calculation technique for obtaining the electric field in the developer gap. In this paper, we demonstrate how normal and horizontal fields obtained from this method can be used to estimate gray level and developed mass per unit area (DMA) of a given pattern. The estimation procedure is phenomenological, but it exploits the physics governing toner movement in the development nip to account for observed feature size dependence of toner development. Estimated DMA specifies developed mass at each point in the calculation grid (3 μm cell). Thus, for any input bitmap, DMA at the subpixel level can be accurately predicted over the entire image. Using two different print engines and various bitmaps, we present simulation results and measurements, which are in good agreement. DMA measurements are collected from measured average toner mass data and scanned images using video microscopy. We calibrated microscopic grayscale data to the toner mass measurements, so that DMA can be obtained directly from scanned gray values.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2002-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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