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The Adhesion of Spherical Toner Particles to an Organic Photoconductor: Contributions of van der Waals and Electrostatic Interactions

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The forces needed to remove monodisperse spherical toner particles from an organic photoconductor were determined using electrostatic detachment for a series of particles having diameters between 2 μm and 12 μm. It was found that the removal force varied linearly with particle radius, as predicted by JKR (K. L. Johnson, K. Kendall, and A. D. Roberts, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 324, 301 (1971). This result is inconsistent with the predictions of models that assume that the detachment forces are dominated by either a uniform charge distribution over the surface of the particle or localized charged patches. Moreover, reasonable works of adhesion are obtained if one assumes that the removal forces are dominated by surface, rather than electrostatic, forces. These results seem to suggest that, for spherical toner particles in this size range, adhesion is dominated by van der Waals interactions.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2002-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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