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The Adhesion of Spherical Toner Particles to an Organic Photoconductor: Contributions of van der Waals and Electrostatic Interactions

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The forces needed to remove monodisperse spherical toner particles from an organic photoconductor were determined using electrostatic detachment for a series of particles having diameters between 2 μm and 12 μm. It was found that the removal force varied linearly with particle radius, as predicted by JKR (K. L. Johnson, K. Kendall, and A. D. Roberts, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 324, 301 (1971). This result is inconsistent with the predictions of models that assume that the detachment forces are dominated by either a uniform charge distribution over the surface of the particle or localized charged patches. Moreover, reasonable works of adhesion are obtained if one assumes that the removal forces are dominated by surface, rather than electrostatic, forces. These results seem to suggest that, for spherical toner particles in this size range, adhesion is dominated by van der Waals interactions.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2002-01-01

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  • For more than 25 years, NIP has been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in non-impact and digital printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems, including drop-on-demand ink jet, wide format ink jet, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based electrophotographic printers, production digital printing systems, and thermal printing systems, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields.

    Since 2005, NIP has been held in conjunction with the Digital Fabrication Conference.

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