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A Nodal Model for Non-Linear Conduction in Toner Particles Modified with Conductive Additives

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Conductive toners utilized in some single- and dualcomponent development systems can be formulated by dispersing fine conductive additives on the surface of insulative toner particles. Electrical conductivity of such toners depends not only on intrinsic conductivity of the additives, but also on their dispersion on toner surface, and, to a great extent, on the method of conductivity measurement.

The present model describes electrical conductance of an individual toner particle with a sub-monolayer of fine conductive additives dispersed on its surface. The model is based on an equivalent electrical circuit consisting of nodes assigned to individual additives, and non-linear resistors representing percolation currents between the additives. Non-linear current-balance equations constructed for each node were solved numerically to obtain the overall current-voltage response of an individual toner particle as a function of the size, volume fraction, and level of dispersion of the conductive additives. Experimental verification of the present model and methods of toner conductivity measurements will also be discussed.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2001-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

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