Estimating Light-fastness of Inkjet Images: Accounting for Reciprocity Failure
Abstract:Among the key assumptions of the accelerated method for predicting light-fastness is that the rate of fade at high illumination intensities is equal to the rate of fade at the lower illumination intensities present in more real-world conditions. If these two fade rates are dramatically different then a reciprocity failure exists for that image that can lead to misleading light-fastness predictions. According to H. Wilhelm ('The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs, pg.67), “…[M]ost color materials exhibit at least some ‘reciprocity failure’ in light fading or light-induced stain formation in high-intensity, short-term tests.” Thus, high-confidence light-fastness predictions for all color images should check for reciprocity failure.
In this paper the authors describe a practical test method for accounting for possible reciprocity failures in Inkjet imaged prints. The media with swellable ink receiving layer (similar to first generation Inkjet photo media) are seen to have little or no reciprocity failure with the ink sets tested thus far. However, the media with micro-porous ink receiving layer tested have all shown significant reciprocity failures (by a factor of the order of 100) that would lead to greatly exaggerated light-fastness predictions if left uncompensated for.
A simple method for identifying whether air exposure contributes to the apparent light fade is also presented. Based on this method it is concluded that air exposure significantly contributes to the apparent light fading of the micro-porous media when samples are not protected from air contact.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2001-01-01
For more than 25 years, NIP has been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in non-impact and digital printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems, including drop-on-demand ink jet, wide format ink jet, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based electrophotographic printers, production digital printing systems, and thermal printing systems, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields.
Since 2005, NIP has been held in conjunction with the Digital Fabrication Conference.
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