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The Expanding Role of Semi-Conductive Polyurethane in Electro-Photographic Systems

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This paper explores the increasing use of semi-conductive polyurethane materials in dry toner Developer, Charging, Cleaning, Intermediate Transfer and Transfer functions, and Developer, Intermediate Transfer and Squeegee functions in liquid toner systems. If you design or specify semiconductive polymer materials for these functions, this paper will provide information on the important design characteristics to communicate to the polyurethane manufacturer. Also discussed is a common language for those specifications and for identifying testing and measurement methods for those characteristics. Testing and measuring methods of Volume Resistivity and Electrical characteristics are explored in detail. A common formula for specifying resistivity is explained and the effect of time, temperature and humidity on this measurement are discussed. Basic molding and machining processes used are reviewed briefly at the beginning of this paper, as are application descriptions. The major functional and quality characteristics to be determined and considered for these applications are:

a) Electrical Properties; Volume Resistivity, Change in Volume Resistivity over time (and/or over total energy transmitted), Change in Volume Resistivity under differing temperature and humidity conditions, Other electrical properties such as R/C charge-decay time and Refresh rate and relation to nip residence time.

b) Physical Properties: Compression Modulus and Durometer [JIS or Shore] (relation to nip width), Tensile, Tear, Shear and Cut Strength, Resilience, Compression Set, Wear and Abrasion Resistance, Surface Energy and release characteristics and COF. Chemical and ozone resistance, Surface roughness, Load and Dynamic properties (tan-δ, Hysteresis and balancing issues)

c) Base Chemistry: Material class or base polymer group (i.e. Polyester or Polyether Polyurethane and how this relates to Chemical Resistance and Hydrolytic Stability.), and the use of differing conductive agents in these systems.

d) Attribute Defect Criteria and Dimensional tolerance issues.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2001-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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