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A Possible Electrode Effect on the Measurement of the Conductivity of Two-Component Xerographic Developers

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E. Gutman and G. Hartmann (G-H) have published a study on the electrical conductivity of two component developer materials. The carriers used in conductive developers typically have a metal core surrounded by an oxide layer that, in turn, may be partially covered by a polymer coating. G-H found that either a Schottky model or a Poole-Frenkel model could describe the current through the developer material in the nip of a magnetic brush. Both models have an exponential dependence on the applied electric field or voltage. For low voltages or electric fields, deviations from the exponential voltage dependence were observed as the developer conductivity decreased due to increasing toner concentration. The deviations were reminiscent of contact resistance effects observed with thin film I-V measurements. The analysis of the developer I-V data is consistent with a contact barrier between the electrodes and the developer sample.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2000-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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