Analysis of Ghosting in Electrophotography
Abstract:A common print quality problem in electrophotographic (EP) printing is ghosting. Ghosting refers to a vestigial image repeated at regular intervals down the length of a page and appearing as light or dark areas (negative or positive ghosting, respectively) relative to the surrounding field.
There are many sources of ghosting, including most EP printer subsystems and many of their components. Subsystems from charging, development, photoreceptor, to fusing can all produce ghosting. The ghosts can be both positive and negative (darker and lighter). Having multiple ghosting sources can make the sources of ghosting difficult to determine, pointing to the need for reliable diagnostic tools.
This paper demonstrates how a commercially-available image analysis system is used to quantify ghosting and diagnose its causes. The system utilizes test targets specifically designed to reveal ghosting problems and are optimized for automated inspection. The analysis method uses frequency domain techniques that make it possible to isolate ghosting from other print quality problems. The method can also correlate observed ghosting to the printer component or components causing it. In addition to its role in R&D, the method is suitable for production environments as a quantitative tool for setting acceptance limits and performing quality control prior to shipping the product.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2000
For more than 25 years, NIP has been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in non-impact and digital printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems, including drop-on-demand ink jet, wide format ink jet, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based electrophotographic printers, production digital printing systems, and thermal printing systems, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields.
Since 2005, NIP has been held in conjunction with the Digital Fabrication Conference.
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