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Pixel-Pixel Electrical “Cross Talk” Through Liquid Toner Developer and Resultant Image Degradation

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One normally conceptualizes and analyzes electrophotographic liquid toner development as proceeding strictly between an electrically-biased developer electrode and a photoreceptor, with a more or less “perpendicularly-constrained” development current flow. That is, one typically ignores the “local lateral conduction” through the liquid toner near the photoreceptor surface which tends to “short-together” the closelyspaced, adjacent image pixels which are at different surface potentials. In this paper, an analog electronic circuit model is used to analyze dynamically the local lateral electric currents through the liquid toner close to the photoreceptor surface, driven by adjacent image pixels at different initial potentials. This is herein termed “pixel-pixel cross talk.” It presents a quantitative and comprehensive, dynamic “picture” of the lateral current transients (cross talk currents) as the image pixels traverse the development nip, along with the resultant edge degradation and “single-pixel-fill-in.” It predicts and demonstrates the effects of development gap, liquid toner conductivity, photoreceptor thickness, process speed, etc., and whether changes in these parameters will ameliorate or aggravate the image degradation. The circuit model results are in excellent agreement with experiment; give powerful additional insight into the transient dynamics of the cross talk effects, and suggests ways to reduce the degradation.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 1999-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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