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Pixel-Pixel Electrical “Cross Talk” Through Liquid Toner Developer and Resultant Image Degradation

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One normally conceptualizes and analyzes electrophotographic liquid toner development as proceeding strictly between an electrically-biased developer electrode and a photoreceptor, with a more or less “perpendicularly-constrained” development current flow. That is, one typically ignores the “local lateral conduction” through the liquid toner near the photoreceptor surface which tends to “short-together” the closelyspaced, adjacent image pixels which are at different surface potentials. In this paper, an analog electronic circuit model is used to analyze dynamically the local lateral electric currents through the liquid toner close to the photoreceptor surface, driven by adjacent image pixels at different initial potentials. This is herein termed “pixel-pixel cross talk.” It presents a quantitative and comprehensive, dynamic “picture” of the lateral current transients (cross talk currents) as the image pixels traverse the development nip, along with the resultant edge degradation and “single-pixel-fill-in.” It predicts and demonstrates the effects of development gap, liquid toner conductivity, photoreceptor thickness, process speed, etc., and whether changes in these parameters will ameliorate or aggravate the image degradation. The circuit model results are in excellent agreement with experiment; give powerful additional insight into the transient dynamics of the cross talk effects, and suggests ways to reduce the degradation.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 1999

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  • For more than 25 years, NIP has been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in non-impact and digital printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems, including drop-on-demand ink jet, wide format ink jet, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based electrophotographic printers, production digital printing systems, and thermal printing systems, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields.

    Since 2005, NIP has been held in conjunction with the Digital Fabrication Conference.

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