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Particle Adhesion Force Measurements by Toner Jumping Method

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Toner adhesion forces to an aluminum substrate were measured by toner jumping method to study its adhesion mechanism. When measuring the toner adhesion forces by the toner jumping method, toner particles were sprinkled over on one of a pair of parallel aluminum electrodes. The dc voltage applied to the electrode was increased at a constant rate, and the occurrence of the toner jumping was observed by measuring the current flowing between the electrodes. The toner adhesion force was estimated from the voltage at the occurrence of the toner jumping. The numbers of toner particles that have a certain adhesion force were estimated from the voltage and current. Conductive toners as well as conductive polymer particles were used in this study. The toner adhesion forces were distributed from 10−11 to 10−7 N.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 1999-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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