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Modeling of Heat Transfer Phenomena with Air Existing in Fusing Region

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Computational treatment of the effects of air existing in a nip region is studied for accurate temperature estimation during toner fusing process in electrophotographic printers. Thermal resistance of the existing air in paper surface roughness and between toner particles is evaluated and thermally equivalent air layer with uniform thickness is introduced based on the amount of the air. Four models are proposed to discuss an adequate setting position of the air layer in a computational region. Toner surface temperatures estimated by the models are compared with measured ones during fusing process. It is clarified that the estimated temperature shows a good agreement with the measured ones with the following two models: 1) The air layer based on paper surface roughness is positioned at toner-roller interface and that based on the toner particles arrangement is in the midst of toner layer. 2) The air layer based on paper surface roughness is the same position with model 1) and the toner is treated as a porous uniformly including air. The above two models are applied to another two kinds of print media with different surface roughness, offering good estimations. The results confirm the usefulness of the treatment of existing air for temperature estimation during fusing process. Effects of toner particle sizes for color printing on the temperature field are also discussed with the estimating calculation. It is expected that the smaller size of toner particles offers an improvement of fuse quality for high-speed color printing with lower energy consumption.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 1999-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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