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Metal Oxide Surface Additives for Xerographic Toner: Adhesive Forces and Powder Flow

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Xerographic toners use submicron metal oxide surface additives to control powder flow. Indeed, oxides have been used to improve flowability or compressibility of cohesive powders for decades, from coffee whitener to aspirin. To date there has been little attempt to understand the mechanism of action of flow aids. In this paper, toner powder cohesion was measured with respect to the primary particle size, hydrophobicity, and hydrogen bonding of the oxide. Cohesion is interpreted in terms Van der Waals, capillary, and hydrogen bonding forces. Flow with oxides is determined by the nano-geometry of contact between oxide particles, determined by the oxide primary particle size. Adhesion forces decrease with decreasing oxide primary particle size and increasing hydrophobicity.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 1998-01-01

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  • For more than 25 years, NIP has been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in non-impact and digital printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems, including drop-on-demand ink jet, wide format ink jet, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based electrophotographic printers, production digital printing systems, and thermal printing systems, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields.

    Since 2005, NIP has been held in conjunction with the Digital Fabrication Conference.

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