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Metal Oxide Surface Additives for Xerographic Toner: Adhesive Forces and Powder Flow

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Xerographic toners use submicron metal oxide surface additives to control powder flow. Indeed, oxides have been used to improve flowability or compressibility of cohesive powders for decades, from coffee whitener to aspirin. To date there has been little attempt to understand the mechanism of action of flow aids. In this paper, toner powder cohesion was measured with respect to the primary particle size, hydrophobicity, and hydrogen bonding of the oxide. Cohesion is interpreted in terms Van der Waals, capillary, and hydrogen bonding forces. Flow with oxides is determined by the nano-geometry of contact between oxide particles, determined by the oxide primary particle size. Adhesion forces decrease with decreasing oxide primary particle size and increasing hydrophobicity.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 1998-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

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