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Two-by-Two Centering Printer Model with Yule-Nielsen Equation

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A binary printer can generate only two solid colors, black and white. Any other gray levels between them are simulated by halftone techniques and shown as the result of spatially averaging neighbor pixels. In the recently proposed 2x2 centering printer model, the conventional coordinates, which specify the location of all pixels, are redefined by shifting the entire grid by half-pixel distance in both the horizontal and the vertical directions. So, we claim that any binary printer can generate seven, instead of only two, “solid” colors. Here, the word “solid” means that all pixels within a large patch of the printout are microscopically identical, at least in the statistical sense. The seven “solid” colors, or gray levels, can be directly measured macroscopically. The 2x2 centering modeling can interpret any output of a binary printer as a seven-level gray image with the same spatial resolution as the binary input. To accurately predict the appearance of any combination of the seven gray levels, we use a modified Yule-Nielsen equation for non-linear spatial averaging. Applications of this 2x2 centering model to halftone screen design and calibration are also presented.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 1998-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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