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Electrostatic Printing of Parmod™ Electrical Conductors

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A new family of liquid toners has been developed to print conductive traces on printed circuit boards by a digital printing technology. The new toners are based on Parmod™ technology which has been developed to enable low cost production of printed circuits by a simple print-and-heat process. The novel feature of these printable materials is that they cure to pure metallic conductors in seconds at a temperature low enough to be compatible with polymer-based printed circuit substrates. The resulting circuit traces have high electrical conductivity and are solderable. The use of conventional printed circuit substrates and the speed of the process permit high-production, low-cost roll to roll processing.

The extension of Parmod™ technology to liquid toners provides two major additional benefits: 1) It provides a major increase in resolution for production of advanced technology high density interconnect structures, and 2) It permits direct digital printing of circuits from CAD files with no intermediate tooling requirements. The latter capability realizes the goal of total CAD/CAM integration and the ultimate in manufacturing flexibility. This paper discusses the characteristics of Parmod™ technology, the performance of the liquid toners based on it and some applications of the technology which can be foreseen.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 1998-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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