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Characteristics of Development and Bead-Carry-Out Phenomena in Two-Component Electrophotographic Development System

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The dynamics of toner and carrier particles in a two-component development system used in electrophotography were studied to clarify the development characteristics and to reduce the image defects due to the bead-carry-out (BCO) phenomenon. The height of the developed toner line image and the density of carrier particles adhered to the photoreceptor surface after development were measured and the behavior of the toner and carrier particles was observed using a high-speed microscope camera. This study clarifies that development occurs not only in the contact area between the carrier brush and the photoreceptor but also in the pre- and postnip regions where the brush does not make contact with the photoreceptor and that the occurrence of BCO is reduced in the image area rather than in the nonimage area at a low dc development voltage at a high toner concentration and with the development sleeve at a high-speed ratio. The mechanisms of these phenomena are investigated using independent experimental and numerical analysis.

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: Department of Applied Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan

Publication date: May 1, 2011

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  • The Journal of Imaging Science and Technology (JIST) is dedicated to the advancement of imaging science knowledge, the practical applications of such knowledge, and how imaging science relates to other fields of study. The pages of this journal are open to reports of new theoretical or experimental results, and to comprehensive reviews. Only original manuscripts that have not been previously published, nor currently submitted for publication elsewhere, should be submitted.

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