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Open Access Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review

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Visual discomfort has been the subject of considerable research in relation to stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays. In this paper, the importance of various causes and aspects of visual discomfort is clarified. When disparity values do not surpass a limit of 1°, which still provides sufficient range to allow satisfactory depth perception in stereoscopic television, classical determinants such as excessive binocular parallax and accommodation-vergence conflict appear to be of minor importance. Visual discomfort, however, may still occur within this limit and we believe the following factors to be the most pertinent in contributing to this: (1) temporally changing demand of accommodation-vergence linkage, e.g., by fast motion in depth; (2) three-dimensional artifacts resulting from insufficient depth information in the incoming data signal yielding spatial and temporal inconsistencies; and (3) unnatural blur. In order to adequately characterize and understand visual discomfort, multiple types of measurements, both objective and subjective, are required.

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Human-Technology Interaction (HTI) Group, Department of Technology Innovation Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands 2: Department of Optometry, Hogeschool Utrecht, University of Applied Science, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Vision Sciences, Department of Optometry and Visual Science, City University, London, UK; and Human-Technology Interaction (HTI) Group, Department of Technology Innovation Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands 3: Group Visual Experiences, Philips Research Laboratories, Eindhoven and the Department Mediamatics, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands

Publication date: May 1, 2009

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  • The Journal of Imaging Science and Technology (JIST) is dedicated to the advancement of imaging science knowledge, the practical applications of such knowledge, and how imaging science relates to other fields of study. The pages of this journal are open to reports of new theoretical or experimental results, and to comprehensive reviews. Only original manuscripts that have not been previously published, nor currently submitted for publication elsewhere, should be submitted.

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