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On the Mechanism of Phthalazine Toner Chemistry in Controlling Silver Nanoparticle Growth in Photothermographic Imaging Films

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A combination of normal Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy has been used to demonstrate that phthalazine is the predominant species on the surface of metallic silver nanoparticles in the image at the final stage of development in photothermographic films. Evidence for a small amount of a cotoner, 4-methylphthalic acid, as Ag2(4-MPA), has also been found. In addition, the organic components around the developed Ag0 nanoparticles have been directly observed by transmission electron microscopy using RuO4 staining techniques. A model system, based on interaction between the toner chemicals with nanoparticulate Ag dispersions, has shown that PHZ can directly cause Ag nanoparticles to aggregate but not coalesce. Based on these results, phthalazine adsorption is proposed to play a major role, and the phthalic acid component a lesser role, in controlling metallic silver formation of the preferred metallic silver dendritic morphology.

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Eastman Kodak Company, 1999 Lake Avenue, Rochester, New York 14650-2157 2: Eastman Kodak Company, 1 Imation Way, Oakdale, Minnesota 55128

Publication date: May 1, 2007

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  • The Journal of Imaging Science and Technology (JIST) is dedicated to the advancement of imaging science knowledge, the practical applications of such knowledge, and how imaging science relates to other fields of study. The pages of this journal are open to reports of new theoretical or experimental results, and to comprehensive reviews. Only original manuscripts that have not been previously published, nor currently submitted for publication elsewhere, should be submitted.

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