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Along with pressure and temperature, the magnetic field is one of the physical parameters that are used for the investigation of matter. It is an important tool for investigating magnetic and electronic properties from both the microscopic and macroscopic points of view. The interaction energy of a substance with a magnetic field, i.e. Zeeman energy or Landau energy, is small even at a field of 2 T as can be provided by a conventional electromagnet. Compared with the inner energies of a substance, magnetic fields as high as possible have been required for obtaining fine and detailed information on the internal structure and energy states. Due to the strong Maxwell stress, however, it is quite difficult to obtain a magnetic field higher than 50 T and much effort has been dedicated to the development of magnets ever since the laboratory electromagnet was invented. The purpose of this paper is to describe the physical effects that have been investigated and the phenomena that have been revealed using high magnetic fields, as well as the development of magnet technology and measurement technology. In addition, application to materials processing is mentioned as an active application of high magnetic fields.