If you are experiencing problems downloading PDF or HTML fulltext, our helpdesk recommend clearing your browser cache and trying again. If you need help in clearing your cache, please click here . Still need help? Email help@ingentaconnect.com

Working conditions of animators: The real face of the Japanese animation industry

$18.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Buy Article:


Japan is recognized as the leading country in the global animation industry. Nevertheless, the real circumstances behind the scenes have not been fully unveiled to a wider audience. In the past half century, Japanese animation has developed without government support. However, now it finds itself at a crossroads. The Japanese Animation Creators Association investigated animators’ working conditions in 2008 as part of the first assessment of this field and revealed some important facts. In addition to the industry’s heavy reliance on outsourcing to countries such as China and South Korea, the assessment finds that young animators face poor working conditions. This article demonstrates the main points arising from these facts, and outlines the recent approach of the Japanese government in response to the problems.

Keywords: Japanese animation; animators; anime; in-between animators; outsourcing; working conditions

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1386/cij.3.3.261_1

Affiliations: 1: Japan Animation Creators Association 2: Dentsu Inc.

Publication date: May 27, 2011

More about this publication?
  • The scope of the Creative Industries Journal is global, primarily aimed at those studying and practicing activities which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent, and which have a potential for wealth creation. These activities primarily take place in advertising, architecture, the art and antiques market, crafts, design, fashion, film, interactive leisure software, music, the performing arts, publishing, television and radio.We are pleased to announce that the Creative Industries Journal has been included in the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) list 2010.
  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
Related content



Share Content

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more