Are ESP Test Results Stochastic Artifacts? Brugger & Taylor's Claims Under Scrutiny
Abstract:Peter Brugger & Kirsten Taylor (B&T) regard positive extrasensory perception (ESP) test results as methodical artifacts. In their view, sequences of guessing, e.g. of symbol cards, being non-random, overlap with finite sequences of non-random targets, and surpluses of hits from chance are deemed to be due to correlated non- randomness. The present author's ESP test data obtained from his 'ball drawing test' applied with N = 231 psychology majors were used for testing five hypotheses derived from B&T's claims. B&T would expect increased hit rates by intra-systemic pattern correlation of both guesses with guesses and targets with targets which are most favourable conditions for B&T's matching mechanism. But hit rates do not increase under such conditions, they decrease significantly. Moreover, Brugger's 1992 result does not replicate. B&T's 'deadly blow' directed at parapsychology turns out to be a boomerang. The authors wanted to get a 'phantom slain'. They got one slain - their own.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2005-01-01