Impact pressures of snow avalanches have been measured at the Swiss Vallée de la Sionne experimental test site using two kinds of sensor placed at different locations in the avalanche flow. Pressures measured in a fast dry-snow avalanche and a slow wet-snow avalanche are compared
and discussed. The pressures recorded using the two types of sensor in the dense flow of a dry-snow avalanche agree well, showing negligible dependence on the measurement device. On the other hand, significantly different pressures are measured in the slow dense flow of a wet-snow avalanche.
This is attributed to the slow drag and bulk flow of this type of avalanche, leading to the formation and collapse of force-chain structures against the different surfaces of the sensors. At a macroscopic scale, limit state analysis can be used to explain such a mechanism by a shear failure
occurring between freely flowing snow and a confined snow volume against the sensor, according to a Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion. The proposed model explains (1) how impact pressure can be up to eight times higher than hydrostatic snow pressure in wet cohesive slow avalanches and (2)
its dependence on sensor geometry.
The Journal of Glaciology is published six times per year. It accepts submissions from any discipline related to the study of snow and ice. All articles are peer reviewed. The Journal is included in the ISI Science Citation Index.