Optical properties of snow in backscatter
Authors: Kaasalainen, S.; Kaasalainen, M.; Mielonen, T.; Suomalainen, J.; Peltoniemi, J.I.; Näränen, J.
Source: Journal of Glaciology, Volume 52, Number 179, December 2006 , pp. 574-584(11)
Publisher: International Glaciological Society
Abstract:We present an overview and the first systematic results on the backscatter properties of snow samples with different grain properties. During a 2 year study we investigated the effect of the apparent characteristics of the samples on the intensity enhancement in the direction of exact backscatter (retroreflection), using a specific instrument designed for backscatter measurements. We observed that a sharp peak in intensity (the hot spot) occurs for most types of snow, which is not observable with traditional goniometers. The key factors in the peak properties are the temperature (related to the changes in grain structure) and grain shape and size. These results form the basis of a larger backscatter data archive which is being applied in the systematic study and exploitation of 'hot spots' in remote sensing of natural targets, as well as in the development of airborne laser intensity measurement.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2006-12-01
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