Skip to main content

Frazil-ice entrainment of sediment: large-tank laboratory experiments

The full text article is not available for purchase.

The publisher only permits individual articles to be downloaded by subscribers.


Laboratory experiments that simulate natural ice-formation processes and sediment entrainment in shallow water are presented. A 10-30 cm s-1 current was forced with impellers in a 20 m long, 1m deep indoor tank. Turbulence in the flow maintained a suspension of sediments at concentrations of 10-20 mg L-1 at 0.5 m depth. Low air temperatures (~ -15°C) and 5 m s-1 winds resulted in total upward heat fluxes in the range 140-260 W m-2. The cooling produced frazil-ice crystals up to 2 cm in diameter with concentrations up to 4.5 g L-1 at 0.5 m depth. Considerable temporal variability with time-scales of <1 min was documented. A close to constant portion of the smaller frazil crystals remained in suspension. After some hours the larger crystals, which made up most of the ice volume, accumulated as slush at the surface. Current measurements were used to calculate the turbulent dissipation rate, and estimates of vertical diffusion were derived. After 5-8 hours, sediment concentrations in the surface slush were normally close to those of the water. After 24 hours, however, they were 2-4 times higher. Data indicate that sediment entrainment depends on high heat fluxes and correspondingly high frazil-ice production rates, as well as sufficiently strong turbulence. Waves do not seem to increase sediment entrainment significantly.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2001-06-01

More about this publication?
  • The Journal of Glaciology is published six times per year. It accepts submissions from any discipline related to the study of snow and ice. All articles are peer reviewed. The Journal is included in the ISI Science Citation Index.
  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free ContentFree content
  • Partial Free ContentPartial Free content
  • New ContentNew content
  • Open Access ContentOpen access content
  • Partial Open Access ContentPartial Open access content
  • Subscribed ContentSubscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed ContentPartial Subscribed content
  • Free Trial ContentFree trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more