Statistical characteristics for the strain-dependent density and the spatial position for deformation-induced cracks in columnar-grain ice
Abstract:Observations on the spatial distribution and on the strain dependence of the crack density are given for cracks formed during compressive, unidirectional, constant-strain-rate deformtion of columnar-grain ice. Specimens, in the grain-size range of about 2 9 mm, were stramed at the nom mal rates of 103,101 and 105. s1 at 10°C. The axis of hexagonal crystallographic symmetry of each specimen grain tended to be in the plane perpendicular to the long direction of the grains and to have a random orientation in that plane. For stress applied perpendicular to the long direction of the grains, the deformation was practically two-dimensional. It was found that the log-normal distribution function provided a good approximation to the strain dependence of the crack density. Statistical characteristics of the distribution had a maximum in the same range of strain rate as found for the strength of columnar-grain ice. Analysis of tbe spatial distribution of the cracks indicated some deviation from randomness for specimens of grain-size less than 5 mm and total strain less than 50 x 104 The observations provide further evidence that crack formation under the experimental conditions is a random process.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: June 1, 1999
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