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The Growth and Deformation of Ice Crystals

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X-ray diffraction photographs were taken of ice dendrites grown from water and from the vapour. In both cases [1120] was found to be the growth direction.

A method of growing cylindrical single crystals of any desired orientation has been devised. Some of these crystals were extended to several times their original length. Slip took place exclusively on the basal plane. Experiments designed to locate the glide direction gave inconclusive results and suggested that, in general, crystals near the melting point can glide in any direction.

Before deformation, ice crystals gave fairly sharp X-ray diffraction spots on Laue photographs. After deformation the spots are drawn out into streaks which later break up into rows of small spots. This indicates that bending of the crystals is followed by the formation of small crystallites of slightly differing orientations. Analogous effects are observed in metals.

ZUSAMMENFASSING. Eisdendriten wurden aus Wasser und aus Wasserdampf geüchtet. Röntgenbeugungsaufnahmen zeigten, dass die Wachstumsrichtung in beiden Fällen [1120] ist.

Es wird über eine Methode zur Herstellung zylindrischer Einzelkristalle beliebiger Orientierung berichtet. Solche Kristalle wurden auf ein Mehrfaches ihrer ursprünglichen Länge gedehnt und glitten ausschliesslich auf der Basisebene. Experimente zur Festlegung der Gleitrichtung gaben zweideutige Ergebnisse, deuteten aber an, dass Kristalle nahe dem Schmelzpunkt in jeder Richtung gleiten können.

Laue Aufnahmen undeforrrllerter Kristalle zeigen schane Röntgenreflexe. Nach der Deformation sind die Reflexe in Streifen ausgezogen, die später in einzelne Flecke aufbrechen. Dies deutet darauf hin, dass sich die Kristalle zuerst verbiegen und später in eine Reihe kleiner Kristalle leicht verschiedner Orientierung verwandeln. Analoge Effekte werden auch in Metallen beobachtet.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: October 1, 1954

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  • The Journal of Glaciology is published six times per year. It accepts submissions from any discipline related to the study of snow and ice. All articles are peer reviewed. The Journal is included in the ISI Science Citation Index.
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