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We present results from a laboratory tank study of ice growing from saline water in a wave field, focusing on the transition from a predominantly frazil/grease-ice cover to a pancake-ice cover. Combining surface temperature observations with direct and indirect determinations of ice
salinity and solid fraction, we describe the evolution of frazil- and pancake-ice area fraction, salinity and solid-ice volume fraction over the course of 1 day. In the investigated stage of transition, frazil ice surrounding the pancakes was found to have rather constant properties: a surface
temperature 0.4–0.6 K below the freezing point of the underlying sea water, a salinity of 24–26 g kg–1 and a solid volume fraction of 0.25–0.29. The average salinity of young pancake ice, estimated from heat and salt budgets, decreased from 18 to 15 g kg–1,
while average solid volume fractions increased from 0.6 to 0.7. The transition from frazil to pancake is estimated to take place when solid fractions reach 0.37–0.40 and surface temperatures are 0.7–0.9 K below the freezing point. We find that, for proper modelling of the grease–pancake
system, it is important to distinguish between a surface and volumetric fraction of pancakes and grease ice.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: May 1, 2011
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The Annals of Glaciology is a peer-reviewed, thematic journal published 2 to 4 times a year by the International Glaciological Society (IGS). Publication frequency is determined and volume/issue numbers assigned by the IGS Council on a year-to-year basis and with a lead time of 3 to 4 years. The Annals of Glaciology is included in the ISI Science Citation Index from volume 50, number 50 onwards.
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