Meteoric ice contribution and influence of weather on landfast ice growth in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea
Abstract:The stable oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O), texture and stratigraphy of landfast ice in Santala Bay, Gulf of Finland, were studied annually from 1999 to 2009. Apart from one year when there was no ice, maximum ice thickness ranged from 0.22 to 0.60 m. Maximum ice thickness was determined primarily by average air temperature, and a simple accumulated freezing-degree-day–ice-thickness model explained 86% of ice-thickness variance. The total ice thickness each winter was dominated by columnar ice and intermediate granular/columnar ice formed at the base of the ice cover. Meteoric ice (snow ice and superimposed ice) accumulated at the top of the ice cover each winter and constituted 4–39% of the total ice thickness (ice mass). Snow ice formed in seven of the ten winters; superimposed ice formed in only three winters. The snow fraction in the meteoric ice contributed 1–30% annually of the total ice mass, with an average of 8.8%.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: May 1, 2011
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