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Modelling of superimposed ice formation during the spring snowmelt period in the Baltic Sea

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Development of landfast sea ice and its snow cover was monitored in the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea, for a period of 4 weeks during the early melt season of 2004. During this period, approximately 90% of the snow layer was transformed into superimposed ice, while the rest sublimated. A one-dimensional thermodynamic snow/ice model was used to simulate this process. The modelled snowmelt and superimposed ice growth were consistent with the observations, but the net accumulation of superimposed ice was slightly overestimated. The errors in calculation of temporal variations of the refreezing were probably due to the uncertainties in the external forcing and simplification of snow processes in the model. The modelled snow thickness was sensitive to the atmospheric forcing, and the influence was amplified when the albedo was parameterized as a function of surface temperature. In the sensitivity tests without this feedback, the direct effect of the inaccuracy in the albedo parameterization was minor. Errors in the parameterized longwave radiation were critical for the modelled snow surface temperature during night-time, but did not have a large effect on the mass balance during this spring melt period.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: November 1, 2006

More about this publication?
  • The Annals of Glaciology is a peer-reviewed, thematic journal published 2 to 4 times a year by the International Glaciological Society (IGS). Publication frequency is determined and volume/issue numbers assigned by the IGS Council on a year-to-year basis and with a lead time of 3 to 4 years. The Annals of Glaciology is included in the ISI Science Citation Index from volume 50, number 50 onwards.

    Themes can be on any aspect of the study of snow and ice. Individual members can make a suggestion for a theme for an Annals issue to the Secretary General, who will forward it to the IGS Publications Committee. The IGS Publication Committee will make a recommendation for an individual themed Annals issue, together with a potential Annals Chief Editor for that issue, to IGS Council. The IGS Council will make the decision whether to proceed, taking into account the spread of topics and the overall capacity for publication of pages in Annals.

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