Direct measurements of turbulent momentum, heat and salt fluxes under landfast ice in the Baltic Sea

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Measurements of under-ice turbulence were performed using an acoustic three-dimensional current meter with an attached fast-repetition temperature–conductivity sensor at two coastal areas in the Baltic Sea during two winters. Observations covered both the ice-growth and spring-melt periods. The objective of these measurements was to obtain knowledge of under-ice turbulence and oceanic heat and salt fluxes to and from the ice in the coastal fast-ice region using eddy correlation techniques. The maximum observed daily average heat flux was 1 W m−2, and the maximum for 10 min periods was an order of magnitude larger. Under-ice turbulence was much smaller than that recorded in the oceans and in coastal regions with tide. These results provide better knowledge of under-ice turbulence and heat-flux variations and are useful for the future development of a Baltic Sea ice salinity model.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: November 1, 2006

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  • The Annals of Glaciology is a peer-reviewed, thematic journal published 2 to 4 times a year by the International Glaciological Society (IGS). Publication frequency is determined and volume/issue numbers assigned by the IGS Council on a year-to-year basis and with a lead time of 3 to 4 years. The Annals of Glaciology is included in the ISI Science Citation Index from volume 50, number 50 onwards.

    Themes can be on any aspect of the study of snow and ice. Individual members can make a suggestion for a theme for an Annals issue to the Secretary General, who will forward it to the IGS Publications Committee. The IGS Publication Committee will make a recommendation for an individual themed Annals issue, together with a potential Annals Chief Editor for that issue, to IGS Council. The IGS Council will make the decision whether to proceed, taking into account the spread of topics and the overall capacity for publication of pages in Annals.

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