Skip to main content

Response of the Nordenskiöld Land (Spitsbergen) glaciers Grumantbreen, Håbergbreen and Dryadbreen to the climate warming after the Little Ice Age

Buy Article:

$30.69 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Three receding glaciers on Spitsbergen were examined on the basis of a 1936 topographic map and field investigations during the summers of 1995 and 2001. Håbergbreen, the largest glacier, has undergone the most intensive recession due to its relatively low altitude. There are two important manifestations of glacial recession: (1) the retreating glaciers leave rocky outcrops in the upper or steeper mountain slopes, and (2) the edges of moving glacier tongues are being transformed into motionless ice-cored moraines in valleys. The glaciers under study have not been transformed into rock glaciers. The recession rate has been increasing since 1995, which can be interpreted as a result both of positive feedback initiated by 20th-century climate warming and of slight warming in the 1990s. The glaciers have not thawed enough in relation to the warming and rise of the equilibrium-line altitude (by at least 250–300 m since the beginning of the 20th century). Håbergbreen, already split up into four ice patches, will disappear without a sustained temperature decrease during the next few decades. Grumantbreen and Dryadbreen will survive as small mountain glaciers if winter snow precipitation does not increase.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: August 1, 2005

More about this publication?
  • The Annals of Glaciology is a peer-reviewed, thematic journal published 2 to 4 times a year by the International Glaciological Society (IGS). Publication frequency is determined and volume/issue numbers assigned by the IGS Council on a year-to-year basis and with a lead time of 3 to 4 years. The Annals of Glaciology is included in the ISI Science Citation Index from volume 50, number 50 onwards.

    Themes can be on any aspect of the study of snow and ice. Individual members can make a suggestion for a theme for an Annals issue to the Secretary General, who will forward it to the IGS Publications Committee. The IGS Publication Committee will make a recommendation for an individual themed Annals issue, together with a potential Annals Chief Editor for that issue, to IGS Council. The IGS Council will make the decision whether to proceed, taking into account the spread of topics and the overall capacity for publication of pages in Annals.

  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more