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A constitutive law for snow taking into account the compressibility

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A constitutive law for snow derived from a complementary power potential is proposed. The total deformation of snow is divided into elastic and creep parts. A hereditary integral using Norton's power law is employed to describe primary creep. The concept of effective stress, which takes compressibility of snow into account, is used to calculate creep deformation. The hereditary integral is approximated by a non-linear spring–dashpot model. Results from uniaxial compression experiments (stress range 15–45 kPa) on sieved snow of density range 180–470 kg m−3 were used to determine the constants appearing in the constitutive equation. The response of snow to constant strain rate (7.4 × 10−6s&minus1 to 2.2 × 10−5s−1) under bilaterally confined conditions was found with an iterative scheme employing the proposed constitutive law. The simulated results agree well with the measured axial stresses and volumetric changes.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2004

More about this publication?
  • The Annals of Glaciology is a peer-reviewed, thematic journal published 2 to 4 times a year by the International Glaciological Society (IGS). Publication frequency is determined and volume/issue numbers assigned by the IGS Council on a year-to-year basis and with a lead time of 3 to 4 years. The Annals of Glaciology is included in the ISI Science Citation Index from volume 50, number 50 onwards.

    Themes can be on any aspect of the study of snow and ice. Individual members can make a suggestion for a theme for an Annals issue to the Secretary General, who will forward it to the IGS Publications Committee. The IGS Publication Committee will make a recommendation for an individual themed Annals issue, together with a potential Annals Chief Editor for that issue, to IGS Council. The IGS Council will make the decision whether to proceed, taking into account the spread of topics and the overall capacity for publication of pages in Annals.

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