Past 220 year bipolar volcanic signals: remarks on common features of their source volcanic eruptions
Abstract:During the past 220 years, prominent signals of non-sea salt sulfate ion (nssSO42-) concentration exceeding the background level, including both marine biogenic and anthropogenic SO42-, were found in shallow ice cores from site H15in East Antarctica and Site-J in southern Greenland.They were mostly correlated with past explosive volcanic eruptions. On the basis of this result and published results of shallow ice cores and snow pits at various locations on the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, eight common signals were found, of which six were assigned to the following explosive eruptions: El Chicho´n, Mexico, in 1982; Agung, Indonesia, in 1963; Santa Maria, Guatemala, in 1902; Krakatau, Indonesia, in 1883; Cosiguina, Nicaragua, in 1835; an unknown volcano between 1831 and 1834; Tambora, Indonesia, in 1815; and an unknown volcano in 1809.Volcanic eruptions which have a potential to imprint their signals in both the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets were characterized by (1) location in low latitudes between 20° N and 10° S, and (2) eruption column height ≥25 km, corresponding to a volcanic explosivity index (VEI) ≥5.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2002
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