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Observations on sea-ice and surface-water geochemistry — implications for importance of sea ice in geochemical cycles in the northern Baltic Sea

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Sea-ice and surface-water samples collected in January–April 1999 in coastal areas in the northern Baltic Sea were analyzed for particle, nutrient and trace-element concentrations and salinity. Stratigraphic analyses of ice cores were also carried out. Bulk nutrient and trace-element concentrations in sea ice fluctuated widely. Nutrient concentrations in sea ice normalized to sea-water salinities showed that sea ice had, almost without exception, an excess of nutrients compared to underlying waters. For phosphorus and phosphate this can be explained by particle incorporation and snow-ice formation, whereas for nitrogen and the sum of nitrite and nitrate snow-ice formation and other mechanisms are important. The levels of Al, Cu, Fe and Ni in the ice were similar to those observed in underlying waters. Pb was observed in detectable concentrations in the ice only. This indicates that sea ice contributes lead to underlying waters during melting, and in some degree also affects the other elements. Furthermore, the observations indicate that incorporation of lead into the ice cover is governed by different processes than for the other elements studied.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2001-01-01

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  • The Annals of Glaciology is a peer-reviewed, thematic journal published 2 to 4 times a year by the International Glaciological Society (IGS). Publication frequency is determined and volume/issue numbers assigned by the IGS Council on a year-to-year basis and with a lead time of 3 to 4 years. The Annals of Glaciology is included in the ISI Science Citation Index from volume 50, number 50 onwards.

    Themes can be on any aspect of the study of snow and ice. Individual members can make a suggestion for a theme for an Annals issue to the Secretary General, who will forward it to the IGS Publications Committee. The IGS Publication Committee will make a recommendation for an individual themed Annals issue, together with a potential Annals Chief Editor for that issue, to IGS Council. The IGS Council will make the decision whether to proceed, taking into account the spread of topics and the overall capacity for publication of pages in Annals.

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