Skip to main content

SAFRAN–Crocus snow simulations in an unstable and windy climate

The full text article is not available for purchase.

The publisher only permits individual articles to be downloaded by subscribers.


SAFRAN and Crocus are simulation systems developed at the Centre d'Études de la Neige, the snow research department of Météo-France. SAFRAN analyzes weather parameters relevant to snow on the ground, and Crocus simulates the build-up of the snowpack. In this study, simulated snow depths and measured snow depths at three locations in Iceland were compared. The main study was performed for the Hveravellir weather station located 640 m a.s.l. in central Iceland. The results from three winters, 1994–97, were analyzed. In Iceland the "Alpine" version of the models systematically underestimated the snow depth and density of the snowpack. Corrections for the effect of wind on snow density and on precipitation measurements led to significant improvements in simulated snow depths. The simulations are sensitive to the threshold temperature between snow and rain. The remaining problems in simulating the snowpack are mainly related to transport of snow by wind, which is not accounted for in the models, and to some extent to melting and sublimation in strong winds.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2001-01-01

More about this publication?
  • The Annals of Glaciology is a peer-reviewed, thematic journal published 2 to 4 times a year by the International Glaciological Society (IGS). Publication frequency is determined and volume/issue numbers assigned by the IGS Council on a year-to-year basis and with a lead time of 3 to 4 years. The Annals of Glaciology is included in the ISI Science Citation Index from volume 50, number 50 onwards.

    Themes can be on any aspect of the study of snow and ice. Individual members can make a suggestion for a theme for an Annals issue to the Secretary General, who will forward it to the IGS Publications Committee. The IGS Publication Committee will make a recommendation for an individual themed Annals issue, together with a potential Annals Chief Editor for that issue, to IGS Council. The IGS Council will make the decision whether to proceed, taking into account the spread of topics and the overall capacity for publication of pages in Annals.

    Beginning in 2016, content will be available at

  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more