Particle densities, velocities and size distributions in large avalanches from impact-sensor measurements
Abstract:In winter 1998/99, high-frequency pressure measurements with 10 cm sensors mounted 1–19 m above ground were carried out in the upper run-out zone of the avalanche test site at Vallée de la Sionne, Switzerland. Two large dry-snow avalanches clearly revealed a three-layered structure, with surprisingly low pressures in the suspension (or powder-snow) layer. The height of the saltation layer varied between 1 and > 3 m. From the duration, impulse and frequency of single-particle impacts (observed in the saltation layer and intermittently in the dense flow), particle-size and velocity distribution functions as well as strongly varying saltation-layer densities were found. With improved methods for peak detection and correction for grazing impacts, pressure measurements will become a premier tool for testing granular flow models.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2001
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