During two winters, typical meteorological conditions (temperature, humidity, wind, radiation) and snow-surface conditions (snow surface and snow temperatures) were measured to simulate the formation and ablation processes (mainly sublimation) of surface hoar on two level snow plots, situated at 2500 and 1500 m a.s.l. In order to verify the simulated deposition/ablation rates, the surface-hoar mass, thickness and occasionally density were also measured. The evaluation shows that, using the aerodynamic bulk method for the half-hourly simulation periods, >90% of the day/night periods could be rated as either hoar-formation or ablation periods. The simulated sublimation rates (deposition/ablation) deviate in the mean by not more than 10% from the measured amounts. However, some larger deviations are present, mainly during ablation periods with heavy melting. Finally a method is shown for transforming net deposited vapour amounts into surface-hoar layers of a corresponding height in order to produce "layers" which might be integrated into snow-cover simulation models.
The Annals of Glaciology is a peer-reviewed, thematic journal published 2 to 4 times a year by the International Glaciological Society (IGS). Publication frequency is determined and volume/issue numbers assigned by the IGS Council on a year-to-year basis and with a lead time of 3 to 4 years. The Annals of Glaciology is included in the ISI Science Citation Index from volume 50, number 50 onwards.
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