Strong single-maximum crystal fabrics developed in ice undergoing shear with unconstrained normal deformation
Laboratory-ice deformation experiments are described that use an apparatus designed to apply a simple-shear stress configuration. Ice samples are deformed by applying horizontal parallel forces, with no vertical forces imposed, and with no attempt made to restrain sample dimension in the vertical direction. The vertical dimensions of the samples however are measured and, for a sample initially of rectangular vertical cross section, it is found that there is an apparent strain (compression) in this direction that increases with the shear strain. For samples initially with a 30° "back-cut" shape, a vertical (extension) strain is evident during approximately the first 20% horizontal strain until the sample has deformed to near the rectangular section shape. For a sample with length-to-height ratio of 10 the maximum vertical strain was about 1%. At this maximum vertical strain, the strain rate in the vertical direction is zero and the sample is undergoing a close approximation to plane laminar (simple shear) flow. It is then followed by a vertical (compression) strain until termination of the experiment. The greater the ratio of length-to-height for the test samples, the less the vertical strain and the greater the strain period over which approximate plane laminar flow persists. This 20% horizontal strain is sufficient to ensure, for a sample of initially isotropic ice, that tertiary steady state has been attained, and the resulting crystal fabrics indicate a strong single-maximum pattern similar to those found deep in polar ice sheets. The single-maximum pattern is however lightly elongated perpendicular to the shear direction.
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The Annals of Glaciology
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