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Structure and strength of basal ice and substrate of a dry-based glacier: evidence for substrate deformation at sub-freezing temperatures

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This paper presents new data and interpretations of the structure, strength and behaviour of basal ice and the substrate of Suess Glacier, south Victoria Land, Antarctica, which is a small alpine dry-based glacier that has a basal temperature of −17°C. A tunnel excavated in the glacier revealed a substrate composed of frozen sand and gravel and a basal zone that was 3.8 m thick. From bottom to top, the basal zone was composed of 1.8 m of stratified, complexly deformed layers of ice and debris overlain by a 0.9 m thick layer of frozen sediment and a 0.8 m thick layer of discoloured ice lying immediately beneath clean glacier ice. Direct shear tests performed in the field on 36 samples show that the average peak shear strength of substrate samples was 2.53 MPa, which is almost twice as strong as the average value for basal ice (1.28 MPa) and the glacier ice samples (1.39 MPa). The direct shear tests suggest that the glacier substrate is unlikely to deform at the current temperature. However, observations of the structure and composition of the basal zone suggest that the substrate contains localized weaknesses that may reduce the peak strength sufficiently to permit bed deformation and entrainment. Two observed forms of weakness are ice lenses and layers in the permafrost and lenses of unsaturated permafrost, which may be inherited from the active zone of a former land surface or produced as pore ice sublimes into cavities which have formed at the glacier bed. Interpretation of data from this study suggests that glacier beds well below the freezing point can be deformed and eroded under certain conditions.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 1999-01-01

More about this publication?
  • The Annals of Glaciology is a peer-reviewed, thematic journal published 2 to 4 times a year by the International Glaciological Society (IGS). Publication frequency is determined and volume/issue numbers assigned by the IGS Council on a year-to-year basis and with a lead time of 3 to 4 years. The Annals of Glaciology is included in the ISI Science Citation Index from volume 50, number 50 onwards.

    Themes can be on any aspect of the study of snow and ice. Individual members can make a suggestion for a theme for an Annals issue to the Secretary General, who will forward it to the IGS Publications Committee. The IGS Publication Committee will make a recommendation for an individual themed Annals issue, together with a potential Annals Chief Editor for that issue, to IGS Council. The IGS Council will make the decision whether to proceed, taking into account the spread of topics and the overall capacity for publication of pages in Annals.

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