The horned crag-and-tails of the Ungava Bay landform swarm, Quebec–Labrador, Canada
Abstract:Till lineations are widespread throughout the interior of Quebec–Labrador, Canada. We discuss a previously unrecognized lineation type, horned crag-and-tails, characterized by two till ridges at the lateral flanks of a bedrock crag. This lineation type appears to occur exclusively in the Ungava Bay lineation swarm and has not been reported from other glaciated shield areas. The morphology and spatial distribution of these peculiar landforms are analyzed in the context of Laurentide ice sheet dynamics in central Quebec–Labrador. We propose that a horned crag-and-tail ridge forms when the ice sheet is frozen to the summit of the crag, but basal melting occurs lower down on the crag. The lack of basal sliding at the summit of the crag inhibits till transport across the crag and prevents the accumulation of till in a direct lee-side position. The last phase of the formation is fossilization by basal freezing of the horned crag-and-tail system. This scenario requires that the ice sheet undergoes a transition from frozen-bed conditions to basal melting with frozen patches on topographical highs, and back to fully frozen-bed conditions. Horned crag-and-tails may thus indicate a unique sequence of basal thermal conditions over large areas of Quebec-Labrador.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 1999
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