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A global infrageneric classification system for the genus Crotalaria (Leguminosae) based on molecular and morphological evidence

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Abstract:

Crotalaria is a large genus of 702 species with its centre of diversity in tropical Africa and Madagascar and secondary radiations in other parts of the world. The current infrageneric classification system is based on morphological and morphometric studies of the African taxa only and is here re-evaluated using a phylogenetic approach. DNA sequences derived from the nuclear ITS and the plastid matK, psbA-trnH and rbcLa markers were analyzed using parsimony and model-based (Bayesian) approaches. The resultant molecular phylogeny allowed for a new interpretation of diagnostically important morphological characters, including specialisations of the calyx, keel, standard petal and style, which are variously convergent in several unrelated infrageneric groups. Of particular interest is the congruence between the new phylogeny and the distribution of standard petal callosity types. A sectional classification system for the entire genus is proposed for the first time. The new system that is formalised here comprises eleven sections: Amphitrichae, Calycinae, Crotalaria, Geniculatae, Glaucae, Grandiflorae, Hedriocarpae, Incanae, Schizostigma, Borealigeniculatae and Stipulosae. Sectional limits of the Geniculatae, Calycinae and Crotalaria are modified. The subsections Stipulosae, Glaucaeand Incanae are raised to sectional level, while some groups previously recognized as subsections are abandoned due to non-monophyly (subsections Chrysocalycinae, Hedriocarpae, Macrostachyae and Tetralobocalyx). Two new sections are recognized, Amphitrichae and Borealigeniculatae.

Keywords: AMPHITRICHAE CLADE; BOREALIGENICULATAE CLADE; CALLOSITIES; FLOWER MORPHOLOGY; GENISTOID CLADE; PAPILIONOIDEAE

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12705/625.1

Affiliations: 1: Department of Botany and Plant Biotechnology, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa 2: Department of Botany and Plant Biotechnology, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Compton Herbarium, Private Bag X7, Claremont 7735, Cape Town, South Africa, Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535, Cape Town, South Africa;, Email: m.leroux@sanbi.org.za

Publication date: October 22, 2013

iapt/tax/2013/00000062/00000005/art00010
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