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Taxonomy and biogeography of Agarum and Thalassiophyllum (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) based on sequences of nuclear, mitochondrial, and plastid markers

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Abstract:

Agarum is a perennial kelp genus that has a broad distribution from the northwest Pacific to the northwest Atlantic Ocean. In order to address questions regarding phylogenetic relationships and present-day distribution patterns of species within this genus, we analyzed the nuclear ITS2, mitochondrial cox1 and cox3, and plastid RuBisCO spacer from a subset of 130 samples of the genus plus Thalassiophyllum and Costaria. All analyses of the individual markers and the ITS2 + cox1 + cox3 dataset consistently produced a clade of Agarum that included Thalassiophyllum. The clade consisted of two well-resolved subclades: one composed of A. fimbriatum and A. oharaense, and the other of A. clathratum, A. turneri, A. yakishiriense, and T. clathrus (the type of the generic name Thalassiophyllum). On the basis of these results, we treat Thalassiophyllum as a syn onym of Agarum, reinstating the combination A. clathrus made by Greville in 1830. Despite its wide distribution from Japan through Alaska to the east coast of North America, A. clathratum had low genetic diversity, suggesting a relatively recent long-distance dispersal of the species. The low degree of substitutions between A. clathratum and A. yakishiriense suggests their recent divergence from a common ancestor, and we recognize the latter as a subspecies of the former. Because type ma terial of A. clathratum has not been found, we designate as neotype a specimen collected in Kamchatka, one of two syntype localities cited by Gmelin for Fucus agarum.

Keywords: AGARUM; BIOGEOGRAPHY; COX1; COX3; ITS2; KELP; RUBISCO SPACER; TAXONOMY; THALASSIOPHYLLUM

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea 2: Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6T 1Z4;, Email: sandracl@mail.ubc.ca 3: Kamchatka State Technical University (KamchatGTU), Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Klyuchevskaya 35, 683003, Russian Federation 4: Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0809, Japan 5: Bigelow Laboratory of Ocean Sciences, West Boothbay Harbor, Maine 04574-0475, U.S.A. 6: Department of Marine Bioscience, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung 210-702, Korea 7: Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, U.S.A. 8: Non-vascular Plant Research Division, National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon 404-708, Korea 9: University Herbarium, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, U.S.A. 10: Department of Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea;, Email: smboo@cnu.ac.kr

Publication date: 2011-06-01

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