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Graphis is two genera: A remarkable case of parallel evolution in lichenized Ascomycota

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Abstract:

Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial small subunit and nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA revealed that the lichen genus Graphis sensu Staiger represents two separate lineages. Graphis s.str. comprises the species of the G. scripta and G. subserpentina groups ('Eugraphis'), as well as the G. striatula group sensu Lücking. For the segregate genus, the name Allographa Chevall. is available, and this genus includes the G. acharii, G. dussii, G. marginata, G. nuda, and G. symplecta groups. The separation of both lineages is supported by principal component analysis species ordination based on phenotype characters, although the G. dussii and G. subserpentina groups appear phenotypically intermediate. Species formerly placed in Hemithecium subg. Hemithecium sensu Staiger were shown to belong to at least four lineages, one nested within Graphis (H. implicatum), one within Allographa (H. chlorocarpum), one sister to Allographa (H. rufopallidum), and one nested within the Phaeographis clade (H. plicosum). Allographa is genetically close to the bulk of lirellate Graphidaceae (Diorygma, Glyphis, Pallidogramme, Phaeographis, Platygramme, Platythecium, Sarcographa, Thalloloma, Thecaria), whereas Graphis s.str. exhibits unique genetic apomorphies and takes a more isolated position.

Keywords: ALLOGRAPHA; GRAPHIS; HEMITHECIUM; PHENOTYPE PHYLOGENY; PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Biological Sciences Department, University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 West Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60607, U.S.A., Department of Botany, The Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605, U.S.A.;, Email: erivasplata@fieldmuseum.org 2: Department of Botany, The Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605, U.S.A. 3: Institut für Botanik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstraße 31, 93053 Regensburg, Germany 4: Lichenologisches Institut Neumarkt, Im Tal 12, 92318 Neumarkt/Opf., Germany 5: Departamento de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, CEP: 49.500-00, Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brasil

Publication date: February 1, 2011

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