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Phylogenetic generic classification of parmelioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) based on molecular, morphological and chemical evidence

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Abstract:

Parmelioid lichens are a diverse and ubiquitous group of foliose lichens. Generic delimitation in parmelioid lichens has been in a state of flux since the late 1960s with the segregation of the large, heterogeneous genus Parmelia into numerous smaller genera. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have demonstrated that some of these new genera were monophyletic, some were not, and others, previously believed to be unrelated, fell within single monophyletic groups, indicating the need for a revision of the generic delimitations. This study aims to give an overview of current knowledge of the major clades of all parmelioid lichens. For this, we assembled a dataset of 762 specimens, including 31 of 33 currently accepted parmelioid genera (and 63 of 84 accepted genera of Parmeliaceae). We performed maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of combined datasets including two, three and four loci. Based on these phylogenies and the correlation of morphological and chemical characters that characterize monophyletic groups, we accept 27 genera within nine main clades. We re-circumscribe several genera and reduce Parmelaria to synonymy with Parmotrema. Emodomelanelia Divakar & A. Crespo is described as a new genus (type: E. masonii). Nipponoparmelia (Kurok.) K.H. Moon, Y. Ohmura & Kashiw. ex A. Crespo & al. is elevated to generic rank and 15 new combinations are proposed (in the genera Flavoparmelia, Parmotrema, Myelochroa, Melanelixia and Nipponoparmelia). A short discussion of the accepted genera is provided and remaining challenges and areas requiring additional taxon sampling are identified.

Keywords: COMBINED ANALYSIS; EMODOMELANELIA; GENERIC CONCEPT; LARGE-SCALE PHYLOGENY; LECANORALES; LICHENIZED FUNGI; LICHENS; NIPPONOPARMELIA; PARMELIACEAE; PARMOTREMA; TAXONOMY

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Departamento de Biología Vegetal II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza de Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain 2: FB Biologie, Molecular Phylogenetics, 13/276, TU Kaiserslautern, Postfach 3049, 67653 Kaiserslautern, Germany 3: Unidad de Bioanálisis, Centro de Investigación y Control de calidad, Instituto Nacional del Consumo, Avda Cantabria s/n 28042 Madrid, Spain 4: Department of Chemistry, Australian National University, P.O. Box 4, Canberra, A.C.T. 0200, Australia 5: Department of Biological Sciences Dept. 2715, PO Box 6050, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58108-6050, U.S.A. 6: Área de Biodiversidad y Conservación, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/ Tulipán s/n., 28933 Móstoles (Madrid), Spain 7: Cryptogamic Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 50007, 104 05 Stockholm, Sweden 8: Botanical Garden and Museum, Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 7, 00014 Helsinki University, Finland 9: ABL Herbarium, G.v.d. Veenstraat 107, 3762 XK, Soest, Netherlands 10: Department of Botany, Fac. of Biology, Universitat de València, ICBIBE, C/ Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia), Spain 11: Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands, Av. 6 de Diciembre N 36-109 y Pasaje California, Post Box 17-01-3891, Quito, Ecuador 12: Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medioambiente (INIBIOMA, CONICET-UNComahue), Quintral 1250, R8400 FRF, San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina 13: Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Anadolu University, Eskişehir, Turkey 14: 2017 Thure Ave., St. Paul, Minnesota 55116, U.S.A. 15: Department of Bryophytes-Thallophytes, Domaine de Bouchout, National Botanic Garden of Belgium, 1860 Meise, Belgium 16: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 75 North Eagleville Road, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3043, U.S.A. 17: Museum of Natural History, University of Bergen, Box 7800, 5020, Bergen, Norway 18: Department of Botany, The Field Museum, 1400 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605, U.S.A. 19: Department of Biology, Duke University, Box 90338, Durham, North Carolina 27708, U.S.A. 20: School of Life Sciences, Södertörns University, 141 89 Huddinge, Sweden 21: Department of Botany, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada 22: Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Freie Universität Berlin, Königin-Luise-Straße 6–8, 14195 Berlin, Germany 23: Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre BiK-F, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany 24: Institute for Plant Sciences, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Holteigasse 6, 8010 Graz, Austria 25: Lund University, Dept. of Systematic Botany, Östra Vallgatan 18–20, 223 61 Lund, Sweden 26: Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7044, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden 27: National Botanical Research Institute (CSIR), Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow-226001, Uttar Pradesh, India

Publication date: 2010-12-01

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