Lost Berlin (B) types of Solanum (Solanaceae) found in Göttingen (GOET)
The type specimens of the names of many taxa were destroyed in the bombing of the Berlin herbarium (B) in March 1943. The taxonomy of African Solanum has been dogged for many years with the absence of type specimens for names published in the 1920s by the German botanist Georg Bitter, many of which were in Berlin and for which duplicates have not been found despite extensive searches by several generations of botanists. Recent examination of the collections in GOET, where Bitter spent the last few years of his life as director, has revealed a rich source of material with which to address typification problems in African Solanum. This consists of delicate tracings of herbarium specimens from B that are no longer extant, often accompanied by small fragments removed from the original specimens. Here we use this collection and other extant material to typify 37 names in African Solanum (S. acutilobatum Dammer, S. alloiophyllum Dammer, S. alloiophyllum Dammer subsp. machisuguense Bitter, S. darassumense Dammer, S. eickii Dammer, S. filicaule Dammer, S. floccosistellatum Bitter, S. gilo Raddi var. ellipsoideum Bitter, S. gilo Raddi var. erectifructum Bitter, S. gilo Raddi subsp. megalacanthum Bitter, S. glochidiatum Dammer, S. indicum L. subsp. ambifarium Bitter, S. kitivuense Dammer, S. lachneion Dammer, S. lamprocarpum Bitter, S. longestamineum Dammer, S. magdalenae Dammer, S. maranguense Bitter, S. merkeri Dammer var. endastrophorum Bitter, S. merkeri Dammer subsp. militans Bitter, S. merkeri Dammer var. ruandense Bitter, S. monotanthum Dammer, S. multiglandulosum Bitter, S. neumannii Dammer, S. nigriviolaceum Bitter, S. nossibeense Vatke var. elongatius Bitter, S. poggei Dammer, S. scheffleri Dammer, S. setaceum Dammer, S. setaceum Dammer var. irakuanum Bitter, S. stipitatostellatum Dammer, S. tabacicolor Dammer, S. taitense Vatke, S. tanganikense Bitter, S. urosepalum Dammer, S. usaramense Dammer, S. verbascifrons Bitter); 27 of these were thought to lack types prior to this study.
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