Campanulaceae are a large, nearly cosmopolitan angiosperm family that are well-accepted as monophyletic but whose intrafamilial and intrageneric relationships are controversial. We used DNA sequences of the chloroplast genes atpB, matK, and rbcL to infer the phylogeny of 102 taxa in 41 genera plus four outgroup taxa. Our sampling represents a wide taxonomic and geographic diversity from within the family. Results from maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses provide strong evidence for two major clades in the family, with the platycodonoids sister to the remaining members of the family, the wahlenbergioids and campanuloids. There are two clear divisions within the campanuloids that correspond well with the historical Campanula s.str. and Rapunculus groups of Boissier and Fedorov. The phylogenetic positions of the Northern European species Wahlenbergia hederacea and the genus Jasione remain unresolved. Our results also provide evidence that the large, inclusive genera Wahlenbergia and Campanula are polyphyletic, and the smaller, segregate genera Symphyandra, Prismatocarpus, and Legousia are not monophyletic. Insights are provided into the different biogeographic origins of several oceanic island endemics. Heterochaenia, Nesocodon, and Berenice occur in a single clade, which suggests a single colonization of the Indian Ocean Mascarene Islands. Conversely, Wahlenbergia linifolia and W. angustifolia of St. Helena Island in the mid-Atlantic are not sister taxa. The Macaronesian taxa, Canarina canariensis, and Musschia aurea, which display convergent bird-pollination adaptations and with Azorina vidalii of the Azores, woody growth form, fall into separate major lineages. The North American Campanulaceae also do not form a monophyletic group, providing evidence that these taxa are the descendents of multiple introductions onto the North American continent.
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Document Type: Research Article
Section of Integrative Biology and Institute of Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, U.S.A.;, Email: [email protected]
Section of Integrative Biology and Institute of Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, U.S.A.
Department of Biological Sciences, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington, U.S.A.
Florida Museum of Natural History, Dickinson Hall, PO Box 117800, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, U.S.A.
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Box G, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, U.S.A.
Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biology (VI), Spemannstr. 37–39, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
Office of Lifelong Learning, University of Edinburgh, 11 Buccleuch Place, Edinburgh, EH8 9LW, Scotland, U.K.
Publication date: 01 August 2009
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