ITS and rps16 intron sequences of altogether 83 species of Apiaceae subff. Saniculoideae (66 spp.), Apioideae (11 spp.), Mackinlayoideae, Azorelloideae (1 sp. each), Araliaceae subff. Hydrocotyloideae (2 spp.), Aralioideae (1 sp.) and Griseliniaceae (1 sp.) were analysed to reconstruct the phylogeny of Apiaceae subf. Saniculoideae tribe Saniculeae. Particular emphasis was placed on Eryngium, with 230–250 spp. the largest genus of Apiaceae, which was represented by 52 species. It was found that the southern African genera Alepidea and Arctopus are (probably successive) sister to the remainder of the subfamily, followed by the Southwest Asian Actinolema and the western Eurasian Astrantia as sister genera. The cosmopolitan Sanicula and Hacquetia from Central Europe, Petagnaea from Sicily and two major (plus two smaller) clades of the cosmopolitan Eryngium form an unresolved polytomy. Eryngium consists mainly of one large clade distributed exclusively in the Old World, and a second large clade with mostly American species. The first branches of this latter clade are distributed mainly in the Iberian peninsula, implying an Old World origin of this New World clade. It also contains Australian species which apparently arrived there from South America. Although Eryngium is not resolved as monophyletic by the molecular data, it is argued that Eryngium is best interpreted as a monophyletic genus. The tribe is of southern African origin. From there, it reached western Eurasia between 49.3 and 44.6 million years ago (mya). Eryngium entered the New World between 7.4 and 6.6 mya, and Australia was reached between 2.6 and 2.2 mya.
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Document Type: Research Article
Institut für Spezielle Botanik und Botanischer Garten, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 55099 Mainz, Germany
Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde in Stuttgart, Rosenstein 1, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany
Publication date: 2008-05-01
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