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Generic level phylogeny of Thalictroideae (Ranunculaceae) — implications for the taxonomic status of Paropyrum and petal evolution

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Abstract:

The subfamily Thalictroideae, which is clearly defined by its chromosome characters, contains nine or ten genera. Here we use sequences of chloroplast rbcL and matK genes as well as non-coding trnL-F and nuclear ITS regions to reconstruct the generic level phylogeny of this subfamily. Our data recognize three major groups within Thalictroideae: (1) Thalictrum, Leptopyrum, Paropyrum, and Paraquilegia; (2) Urophysa, Semiaquilegia, and Aquilegia; and (3) Dichocarpum, Enemion, and Isopyrum. Isopyrum anemonoides, the sole species of Paropyrum, and Paraquilegia form a clade sister to Leptopyrum; together they make up the first group. Isopyrum manshuricum and I. thalictroides form another clade within the third group. Isopyrum anemonoides is sister to the monophyletic Paraquilegia. Our data suggest that Isopyrum is polyphyletic and support the segregate genus Paropyrum. Reconstruction of petal evolution suggests a secondary loss of petals in Enemion and Thalictrum, in contrast with the view that apetalous taxa are the most primitive. Petals with longer stalks in Dichocarpum are shown to be derivative, refuting the viewpoint that this type is a primitive condition. The flat petals in Paraquilegia may be derived from the tubular-type petals in Paropyrum and Leptopyrum, and spurred petals are thought to have originated from a single ancestor.

Keywords: ISOPYRUM ANEMONOIDES; PAROPYRUM; PETAL EVOLUTION; PHYLOGENY; THALICTROIDEAE

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, & Herbarium, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, P. R. China; Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, P. R. China 2: State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, & Herbarium, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, P. R. China

Publication date: August 1, 2007

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