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Open Access A Framework for Developing Research Protocols for Evaluation of Microbial Hazards and Controls during Production That Pertain to the Application of Untreated Soil Amendments of Animal Origin on Land Used To Grow Produce That May Be Consumed Raw

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Application of manure or soil amendments of animal origin (untreated soil amendments; UTSAs) to agricultural land has been a long-standing practice to maintain or improve soil quality through addition of organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Much smaller quantities of these types of UTSAs are applied to land used for food crops than to land used for animal grain and forage. UTSAs can harbor zoonotic enteric pathogens that may survive for extended periods after application. Additional studies are needed to enhance our understanding of preharvest microbial food safety hazards and control measures pertaining to the application of UTSAs especially for land used to grow produce that may be consumed raw. This document is intended to provide an approach to study design and a framework for defining the scope and type of data required. This document also provides a tool for evaluating the strength of existing data and thus can aid the produce industry and regulatory authorities in identifying additional research needs. Ultimately, this framework provides a means by which researchers can increase consistency among and between studies and facilitates direct comparison of hazards and efficacy of controls applied to different regions, conditions, and practices.

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Western Center for Food Safety, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 2: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, P.O. Box 166, Clay Center, Nebraska 68933 3: Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, Georgia 30223 4: Department of Food, Nutrition, and Packaging Sciences, Clemson University, 217 P&A Building, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 5: School of Food Science, Washington State University, P.O. Box 646376, Pullman, Washington 99164-6376 6: Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio Agriculture Research and Development Center, Ohio State University, 1680 Madison Avenue, Wooster, Ohio 44691 7: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 8: Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Florida, 359 FSHN Building, Newell Drive, Gainesville, Florida 32611 9: Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 10: Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, 240 Upchurch Hall, Auburn, Alabama 36849 11: Department of Food Science, Cornell University, 630 West North Street, Geneva, New York 14456, USA

Publication date: June 1, 2013

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    The Journal of Food Protection (JFP) is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.

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