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Refined Liquid Smoke: A Potential Antilisterial Additive to Cold-Smoked Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

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Cold-smoked salmon (CSS) is a potentially hazardous ready-to-eat food product due to the high risk of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes and lack of a listericidal step. We investigated the antilisterial property of liquid smokes (LS) against Listeria innocua ATCC 33090 (surrogate to L. monocytogenes) as a potential supplement to vacuum-packaged CSS. A full-strength LS (Code 10-Poly), and three commercially refined fractions (AM-3, AM-10, and 1291) having less color and flavor (lower content of phenols and carbonyl-containing compounds) were tested. In vitro assays showed strong inhibition for all LS except for 1291. The CSS strips were surface coated with AM-3 and AM-10 at 1% LS (vol/wt) with an L-shaped glass rod and then inoculated with L. innocua at 3.5 log CFU/g, vacuum packaged, and stored at 4°C. The LS did not completely eliminate L. innocua but provided a 2-log reduction by day 14, with no growth up to 35 days of refrigerated storage. A simple difference sensory test by 180 untrained panelists showed the application of AM-3 did not significantly influence the overall sensorial quality of CSS. In essence, the application of the refined LS as an antilisterial additive to CSS is recommended.

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Kodiak Seafood and Marine Science Center, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775, USA 2: Kodiak Seafood and Marine Science Center, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775, USA. 3: Institute of Arctic Biology, Department of Biology and Wildlife, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775, USA

Publication date: May 1, 2013

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