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Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella enterica Isolates from Bulk Tank Milk and Milk Filters in the United States

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Abstract:

Salmonella isolates were recovered from bulk tank milk as part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Dairy 2002 and 2007 surveys. In-line milk filters were also tested in the 2007 survey. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella enterica isolates from bulk milk and milk filters in the NAHMS Dairy 2002 and 2007 surveys and to further characterize resistant isolates. Susceptibilities to 15 antibiotics were determined for 176 Salmonella isolates of 26 serotypes using an automated antimicrobial susceptibility system. Resistant isolates were screened by PCR for the presence of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (bla CMY) gene and class I integrons and further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Thirty isolates (17.0%) representing six S. enterica serotypes exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent (serotypes Newport [14 of 14 isolates exhibited resistance], Dublin [7 of 7], Typhimurium [3 of 5], Kentucky [4 of 22], Anatum [1 of 13], and Infantis [1 of 2]). Twenty isolates (11.4%), including all 14 Newport, 3 Dublin, 2 Typhimurium, and 1 Infantis isolate, displayed the typical multidrug-resistant, bla CMY-positive (MDR-AmpC) phenotype which included resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline, plus resistance to amoxicillin–clavulanic acid and extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Five of the MDR-AmpC isolates carried class I integrons (2.8%). Two-enzyme (XbaI and BlnI) pulsed-field gel electrophoresis discerned clades within serotypes and, together with the resistance profiles, identified strains that appeared to have persisted temporally and geographically. These results suggest that there is a low but appreciable risk of infection with MDR Salmonella from consumption of nonpasteurized milk and dairy products.

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-12-263

Affiliations: 1: Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, BARC-East Building 173, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA. joann.vankessel@ars.usda.gov 2: Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, BARC-East Building 173, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA 3: Center for Veterinary Medicine, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 8401 Muirkirk Road, Laurel, Maryland 20708, USA

Publication date: 2013-01-01

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