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First Detection and Seasonal Variation of Lipophilic Toxins Okadaic Acid, Dinophysistoxin-1, and Yessotoxin in Korean Gastropods

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Okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1), pectenotoxin-2, and yessotoxin (YTX) are classes of lipophilic toxins found in marine animals. OA and DTX1 accumulation causes diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, a worldwide public health problem. Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning has not previously been reported in gastropods, which are widely consumed in Korea. Seasonal variation in marine lipophilic toxins in gastropods was investigated using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Eighty specimens of Neptunea cumingii, 65 specimens of Rapana venosa, and 95 specimens of Batillus cornutus were collected at the Tongyeong fish market on the southern coast of Korea between May 2009 and December 2010. OA, DTX1, and YTX were detected in meat and digestive glands in all gastropod species studied. Pectenotoxin-2 was not found in any sample tested. Lipophilic toxins were detected in the digestive glands of gastropods; no lipophilic toxin was detected in the salivary glands of the carnivorous gastropods, N. cumingii and R. venosa. The highest concentrations of OA (21.5 ng/g) and DTX1 (8.4 ng/g) were detected in the digestive glands of R. venosa, and the maximum concentration of YTX (13.7 ng/g) was found in the digestive glands of N. cumingii. The maximum toxicities in gastropod tissues were lower than the European standard for acceptable levels. The concentrations of lipophilic toxins in carnivorous gastropods showed a high degree of seasonal variation; lipophilic toxins in carnivorous gastropods were found predominantly in spring and summer. This is the first report of the occurrence of lipophilic toxins in Korean gastropods.

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Food Safety Research Division, National Fisheries Research & Development Institute, 408-1, Sirang-ri, Gijang-up, Gijang-gun, Busan 619-705, Republic of Korea 2: West Sea Fisheries Research Institute, National Fisheries Research & Development Institute, 14, Seonnyobawiro, Eulwangdong, Junggu, Incheon 400-420, Republic of Korea 3: College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea 4: Food Safety Research Division, National Fisheries Research & Development Institute, 408-1, Sirang-ri, Gijang-up, Gijang-gun, Busan 619-705, Republic of Korea.

Publication date: November 1, 2012

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